In a few years, looking back, we will see how The Govit-19 Marked before and after biomedical research. In particular, vaccines have been one of the cornerstones of improving the lifespan of mankind in the last century.
Is the latest milestone Approval of the first DNA-based Govt vaccineConsidered an instructional book on molecular life. This was done by India and this is the first time such a vaccine has been used commercially for humans.
Although they have been experimenting since the 90s, the only vaccines with this technology were only in the animal environment, horses, dogs, pigs or salmon.
Now, the vaccine has been developed by the lab Zidus Cadillac – With the support of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India – It can be managed by everyone People over the age of 12 from this month on a three-dose schedule. The company, which specializes in generic and biosimilar drugs, has already announced that it could produce up to 50 million doses early next year.
That is the main drawback of these vaccines They must reach the nucleus of human cells to activate the antigen production mechanismIt will then be recognized by the immune system. It has traditionally achieved low levels of immunity. In contrast, the messenger RNA used by the Pfizer-Bioentech and Modern vaccines must penetrate the cell only to take up cell protein production.
Protected against delta type
The Government of India has pointed out Efficacy of vaccine to prevent symptomatic Govit-19 is 66.6%All powerful MRNA is relatively low compared to sera, but with one advantage: Includes delta type, Dominated the Indian subcontinent since last spring. The study, which was attended by 28,216 people, began on January 20.
It has a different distribution system than the Govt vaccines approved in Europe. Instead of an intramuscular injection, ZyCoV-D uses a device Introduces fluid under pressure through the skin, Where there is a high number of immune cells, it exceeds the lower limit of traditional immunity in these vaccines.
It may seem strange that the first human DNA vaccine would leave India, a secondary country at the forefront of biomedical research. However, its pharmaceutical industry is one of the most important in the world: they do not call India a ‘global pharmacy’ because it Most common medicines on the planet are manufacturedThat is, those who ‘copy’ brand names when the patent expires.
According to the firm, over the past decade, they ‘copied’ complex versions of sophisticated biological drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies used to treat the most complex cancers.
Upcoming DNA vaccines
However, ZyCoV-D is not the only DNA-based vaccine that could reach the hands of citizens in the coming months. According to him Registration of Govt vaccines under investigation by the WHO, 11 vaccines are being tested in humans, and 16 are in early development (in places such as Egypt, Bangladesh, Slovenia or Uzbekistan).
Of those already in clinical trials, two are particularly advanced. First, from a North American laboratory Inovio Drugs, You have an open test About 6,000 people are participating And in this, in addition to the effectiveness against symptomatic disease, hospitalization and mortality protection are also measured as the primary objective.
Like Zydus cadillac, the vaccine is administered using a device called cellsectra 2000, which introduces the fluid internally. It is offered in two doses at intervals of 28 days.
The other candidate is from Japan, from the company Angus. The investigation, in phase 2/3, began last November Includes 500 participants Those who receive the vaccine (intramuscularly) in two doses separated by an interval of 14 or 28 days.
Like messenger RNA vaccines, DNA-based ones seem to stay here. Indian virologist Shahid Jameel mentioned Nature If successful, the future of the vaccine in humans is here.
That’s it This type of serum offers many advantages over the technologies used so farAlthough They do not sterilize (It is based on the path of management rather than its technology).
First, there are no contaminants in it. Restorative protein-based vaccines, followed by the need for purified cell cultures, may contain traces of antibiotics or other proteins.
In addition, DNA, using plasmids (another that activates the circular DNA and encoding process with the protein gene) Avoid possible cross-immunity by virus vectorThe risk of ineffectiveness and immunodeficiency allows pregnant people to be vaccinated in multiple doses without its use.
On the other hand, these vaccines have a very interesting defense profile, with some side effects, they produce both humoral (neutralizing antibodies) and cellular (T cells) immunity, and the production infrastructure is less expensive.
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