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In 1985, a Muslim woman named Shah Bano sought the support of her ex-husband in the Supreme Court. When the husband relied on personal religious law not to pay for more than the first three months after the divorce, he had national law on his side. It was determined that there was no compromise between the verdicts Sharia And Article 125.
In the streets, social controversy escalated, with protesters in both directions calling for the abolition of the Rajiv Gandhi state court sentence and the exclusion of Muslim divorced women from the right to maintenance fees. Muslim Women’s Law (Minutes Security Divorce Rights), 1986. The debate over a uniform civil code revealed the tension between the rights of women who are already citizens in the Constitution and the norms that govern them within the boundaries of social law. The Indian professor explains this Nivedita Menon In his book See as a feminist (In the package The origin of the world, From Consoni), Recently published in Spanish with a translation by Tamara Tenambam.
In six chapters, Menon compiles a series of stories that provide context and perspective for the journey through the issues of feminism. In this case, he explains, from the Bano ruling, the debate on the Civil Code “rarely re-emerged in public debate as a feminist issue,” although this would always be worse than “satisfying minorities”. Inheritance, marriage and custody, precisely, women and girls. In fact, the legal debate is “invariably considered on the basis of national unity against the cultural rights of communities,” he says. Therefore, its mission is to see (show us) the great problems of the world and the specific problems of a complex society like India through feminist eyes.
Deep, yet at the same time light and resourceful, the Indian writer presents 200 pages that create a crack in the wall that has been told a thousand times, with new perspectives around the feminist debates we have affected here. Protest against the treatment of middle class (married) women in Calcutta, widows stigmatized as prostitutes among Bengali Hindus, militant acquisitions of sexual assaults (such as the Delhi and Bhopal “parade of prostitutes”) Two thousand pantiesPowersRoses Sent to radical conservative leader Ram Sena. Unexpected reactions of lactating men, discussions and practices of sexual relations, ritual castration and letter ‘e’ accepted in Indian passport to indicate gender, with trance experience The Hijras Third Indian gender – or how diversity is linked in the formation of a nation. All of this without avoiding the still unresolved issues in the Western world, such as incredible (and flawed) gender verification tests such as sports, pornography and sexual violence.
Another key point in his book is the impact of colonialism on imposing Western modern answers to questions of gender and gender that do not exist in South Asian and African societies, such as the notion of “nature is separate”. மனிதர்கள்; The concept of bodies belongs entirely and naturally to one sex or another; Hermaphroditism is thought to be a disease, and desire flows naturally only between the sexes Opposite”.
The function of the family as a company is to guide property and descent, in which property and family name flow from parents to male children.
Nivedita Menon is a Professor of Political Thought Yawaharlal Nehru UniversityIn Delhi, she has authored other books on feminism and sex, translates from Hindi and Malay into English, and is an active participant in the civic movement in India and the founder of the Coalition. Kafila Online. See as a feminist 2012 was published in English, the year a woman was repeatedly raped and murdered on a bus in Delhi காசோ நிர்பயா.
The title book you choose describes what your first non-academic publication will be Sees as a state Yale Professor James C. Scott, in which he examines the dictatorial failures of public policy. Menon analyzes the ways, in an entertaining but profound way Gender Power ”or institutional policies and social processes in which gender is underestimated as a variable in contemporary India, as well as the contemporary world. “In this book, I draw on feminist research and activism from my part of the world to engage with global feminist discussions and experiences,” she says. From this reflection, it is her opinion that commitments to other feminists are inevitable.
One reason that can only exist collectively
The thinker argues that “feminism can never be identified with the isolated achievements of isolated women,” whose function is not to perpetuate “instability”. This fascinating figure is found in Kamala Basin’s Hindustani poem, which he quotes: I am not the wall that stands on the border, I am the crack in that wall.
“The more we understand, the more our boundaries move,” Menon writes, warning that with this phrase he will not avoid problems when solving any problem. So, it starts with the category of family, which not only includes this “awareness” category of “legal sex, towards reproduction” in India, but also against those who dare to fall in love with caste or religion, especially about name and dowry and unleashed violence. Wrong (Calls Honor killings). In this field, the law Caste and Tribal Recognition (Prevention of Cruelty) 1989 addresses the habitual sexual violence experienced by women in tribal communities Dalit Y Adivasi, Derived from the caste order of Hinduism, explained the political scientist. For the rest, the function of the family as an institution is to “guide property and descent, in which property and family name flow from parents to male children,” he adds.
Within the same chapter, it involves domestic workers, precisely because they are part of the nucleus that affects half of their country, but rather because of the opposite. One of India’s first national surveys of unorganized sex workers found: “71% of them said they voluntarily switched to sex work after trying hard and low-paying jobs; the majority of these previous jobs were of the domestic work type. The author concludes: Has bad features. “
Eliminating gender as a universal type
After family, body and desire come and go with a perspective that relates to all types of stone carving in the West. “Is gender / gender mold a universally relevant measure of social difference? In other words, have all societies established consistent physical differences between men and women at all times and at all times?” Menon wonders. To answer these questions, he quotes the Nigerian educator and asks the hearts of other latitudes Oyronge Oyewumi, Western anthropologists – including feminist anthropologists – argue that it was difficult to understand African society on their own terms, in line with preconceived notions of Yoruba or other pre-colonial cultures because they considered gender identities and hierarchies to be universal: ‘ If not. ‘
Feminism is not a moment of ultimate victory, but the gradual change of social boundaries is very defining, and the old frontier will change forever.
These particular assumptions of the West – such as blue / boy and pink / girl – were misrepresented to communities and did not have the same meaning. Thus, among the Igbo, in pre-colonial times, daughters “could take on male roles and become sons, and rich women could get wives.” In Amerindian cultures, on the other hand, people were called Two-spirits, Referring to the feminine and masculine souls and to special persons considered “often, seers, healers.” Likewise, magic poets Movement Devotion From India, in the region of the Tamil people, “they experienced a kind of desire for God, which travels in the body and restores it.” The same gender flexibility of other pre-age societies applies to the age chronology of the population, when communities are “age is always relative and environmentally sensitive” because it is based on other interactions. “Western researchers have privilege signs installed on the body,” Menon argues.
The Indian author explains a thousand and one reasons to consider that masculinity and femininity differ in different cultures, “reaffirms what gender culture is to nature. Similarly, it questions the empowerment of women” – in the campaigns of the authorities – such as “feminism”. Feminism is not a moment of ultimate victory, but a gradual change in social boundaries that are so decisive, that old boundaries will always change. “
Feminism cannot be accepted by women alone, because exploring all the commands of the world is a powerful political perspective, as well as a “way of life” in which everything that happens under one surface is an openly polished society. According to Nivedita Menon, feminism is “continuing.”
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