June 7, 2023

Great Indian Mutiny

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India wants to be a great non-aligned power of the future

In today’s global geopolitics, logic “He who is not with us is against us.” Look at the balance of power dynamics as the two great powers desperately try to create axes of influence on the other side of the world to counterbalance their rival’s dominance. But the planet’s largest democracy has always gracefully navigated this dichotomy. India It sits at the table with the US, Australia and Japan to develop joint policies to strengthen security in the Indo-Pacific region At the same time, it is agreeing with China to work on space cooperation to create a “virtual constellation” that allows data sharing. In BRICS countries. He is doing all this while sending humanitarian aid to Ukraine and calling for an immediate end to the violence, but Without directly condemning or punishing Russia, its largest arms supplier.

“India doesn’t think in black and white, it doesn’t think in terms of blocks. India is agnostic”explains to Nation Harsh V., an expert on Indian foreign policy at King’s College London. Pant mentioned that he has decided to flee the country. “Highly dynamic diplomacy” and “in many directions” In recent years.

According to experts, India’s balancing act is responding to a historic struggle Maintaining a non-aligned and independent foreign policy, its main objective is to serve the government’s internal agenda and promote a development-oriented approach by fostering relations with several countries that are sometimes hostile to each other. “That’s why it goes hand-in-hand with the West in some respects, but seeks to cooperate with emerging powers in others,” says Pant.

Yours at a time Enormous diplomatic and economic weight, and population New Delhi’s positions on issues of international concern – which a UN report estimates will overtake China as the world’s most populous country next year – are under increased scrutiny if it is given enough manoeuvrability.

But to understand what India’s main aims and objectives were, it is necessary to take a brief historical tour.

A guard observes the construction of the Berlin Wall during the Cold War.Popper’s photo

In the early years of the Cold War, India launched the Non-Aligned Movement to resist the weakening of its sovereignty; Rebuilding its economy and ensuring its integrity, explained External Affairs Minister Subramaniam Jaishankar. At a major event in 2019.

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But as the conflict intensified, India informally entered the Soviet orbit, mainly to break America’s strategic alliance with its great subcontinental enemy, Pakistan. After partition in 1947, the two countries struggled Three battles for KashmirAn area that causes tension over and over again.

However, since the collapse of the Soviet Union, The agreement between India and the US has improved significantly. It helped a lot Both countries are democracies and maintain close trade relations. “India is a great example of democracy. She is very pious and she has different religious leaders but all of them are comfortable in their religion. The world needs India,” said George W. Bush The New York Times State visit to Hyderabad in 2006 – “Most pro-Indian President”.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the India’s comprehensive contribution to the war against terrorismAlong with the development of its economy, it wants diplomatic relations not only with the US but also with many NATO countries.

Even in 2004, Although Washington is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it has signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with New Delhi. Under the argument that its solid record made it exceptional, the country relinquished its status as a near-pariah state.

Connections continued to grow significantly during his tenure Narendra Modi. The prime minister’s Hindu nationalist party, the Indian People’s Party (IPP), focuses on a broad liberal economic policy that prioritizes globalization and economic growth. Very favorable for increasing relations with the WestAntia Mato Bouzas, professor of politics and international relations at London Metropolitan University, wrote in an article for the Elcano Royal Institute.

This new chapter was accompanied by a significant increase in trade. In the financial year 2021-22, The US has overtaken China to become India’s major trading partner. Bilateral trade between the two countries was $119.42 billion, accounting for 11.5% of India’s total trade. This increase also transferred to trade with the EU, which reached an all-time high in 2021: 88.1 billion. Euronews.

India’s strategic partnership with the US and its allies in the Indo-Pacific region has deepened in recent years, given the challenge of managing an increasingly assertive China. In the end, Beijing is India’s main strategic adversary, It shares a disputed 3,000 km border with it.

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But even so The Modi government is trying to capitalize on China’s efforts to make it less hostile to superpowers Therefore, it is ready to cooperate with it in some areas.

Thus, India’s foreign policy a Crossroads: New geopolitical currents, stemming mainly from China’s military and economic rise, have brought New Delhi closer to Washington and its allies; However, it must address its own perception of managing security threats inherent in its immediate and extended neighborhood (which includes China and Pakistan, both nuclear powers). This is where Russia comes in.

Dec.  Russian President Vladimir Putin and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi shake hands before meeting in New Delhi, India, on May 6, 2021.  (AP Photo/Manish Swaroop, File)
Dec. Russian President Vladimir Putin and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi shake hands before meeting in New Delhi, India, on May 6, 2021. (AP Photo/Manish Swaroop, File)

Maintaining healthy relations with the Kremlin is an important piece of this larger geopolitical puzzle. Moscow is the backbone of Indian military hardware: The Russian market accounts for more than 46% of all arms purchased by New Delhi between 2017 and 2021.As reported Foreign policy.

Also, after Moscow offered a discount of $35 per barrel, Indian companies have started increasing their purchases of Russian oil. According to an estimate published by Reuters, India has bought at least 40 million barrels since the start of the invasion; 2021 is more than twice what he bought.

But the West is ready to ignore all this. “From a security perspective, the war in Ukraine is a minor setback in the US-European relationship with India; They desperately need it as a regional counterweight to China,” explains Pant.

Indeed, the US House of Representatives approved it on Thursday A legislative amendment recognizing a specific exemption for India Punitive sanctions by CAATSA – the US Countering Adversaries Through Sanctions Act – for the purchase of the S-400 anti-missile defense system from Russia, the report said. Times of India.

Beyond the juggling act the Modi government has to do with its foreign policy, according to the expert, the country’s strategy to address prevailing national interests and key global challenges is contemplating a form of diplomacy. Encourage some internal concerns. “India is not focused on becoming a world superpower. It is still a very poor country. The most important goal at this stage is to become a developed country. Domestic development is high on the priority list. And foreign policy is with that decision.”is out.

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The 2021 Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) showed that 27.9% of India’s population was multidimensionally poor. The country is occupied Ranked 62 out of 109 in the index.

27.9% of India's population is multidimensionally poor in 2021.
27.9% of India’s population is multidimensionally poor in 2021. AFP

That is why India wants to work with other countries to promote activities in various fields (economy, technology, research, education, logistics, defense and climate change etc.) in key international forums, keeping in mind their interests. Compared to rich countries. Through this, the Modi administration has paid special attention Neighborhood first principle, a central element in peaceful relations and joint development with its South Asian neighbours. But it has strengthened ties with countries in other regions. Argentina is an example.

The Embassy of India in Argentina informed about this. Relations between the two countries were elevated to the status of a strategic association during then President Mauricio Macri’s visit to India in 2019.. Multilateral relations between the two countries have grown stronger over the years and include cooperation at political, economic, cultural, scientific and technological levels.

Likewise, Bilateral trade is set to hit a historic high of $5.7 billion in 2021, with a growth rate of 72% compared to 2020, with 1.4 billion exports from India to Argentina and 4.3 billion imports from Argentina to India, according to Intech data. This made India A fourth trading partner in 2021.

Mauricio Macri's State Visit to India in 2019
Mauricio Macri’s State Visit to India in 2019Twitter @the_hindu